Turning Domestic Wastewater Into Drinking Water

Table of Contents

Historic methods for domestic wastewater treatment: 

Humankind has a history of reusing water dating back to the history of humans as much as 1500 to 2000 BCE, when Indian, Greek and Egyptian writers wrote about Using a hot iron dipped in water, heating water in the sun, boiling water over a fire, and filtering water through sand.

These treatment methods were merely based on the physical characteristics of water i.e., taste, smell and color until the 1700 individuals realized that although these methods were performed over the water, people still got sick from the treated water.

BioTornado logo white textThe Dutch scientist Anton van Leeuwenhoek “the father of microbiology” in 1676 invented the microscope and first person to look at drinking water under a microscope and discover the microorganism.

The discovery of the microorganism enhanced the understanding of water biology and forced scientists to introduce new methods of treatment like the use of new water filtration systems made of charcoal, wool, and sponges by the 1800s the European towns regularly used sand filters for drinking water.

The revolutionist discovery of microbes enhances the understanding of scientists regarding safe water, which develops the base of today’s water industries treatment providing different conventional and advanced wastewater water treatment solutions to their customers 

Modern Domestic wastewater treatment:

This is a well-established fact through the data that our future generation not only faces the problem of contaminated water but also scarcity of water resources because of climate change, overpopulation, overexploitation of water resources and physical alteration of water bodies. 

According to the European Environment Agency, 65% of drinking water and 25 % of water for agriculture is provided by groundwater resources although there is a 15 % decline in freshwater abstraction there is no overall reduction in the area affected by water scarcity conditions.

Additionally, it is predicted that climate change will reduce the amount of water available in Europe, placing further strain on the southern regions currently experiencing water scarcity.

Low-lying areas are vulnerable to storm surges and sea level rise, and flooding events are predicted to occur more often in other parts of Europe. In order to minimize the hazards of floods and water damage, cities and regions are leading the way in implementing measures such as reducing leaks, reusing water, introducing packaged plants and introducing blue and green zones into metropolitan areas.

The alarming situation of water scarcity and flooding episodes in Europe demands active participation in reducing the adverse effects of climate change and overpopulation.

one of the effective ways to mitigate the adverse effects of climate change and overpopulation is to introduce a decentralized wastewater treatment plant with recycling of wastewater not only for horticulture but also for drinking purposes through proper treatment.

The decentralized treatment of wastewater is one of the best options available for individual and small enterprises to reduce their water footprint at the pollution source, one of the exceptional advantages of decentralized wastewater is that it can quickly respond to changes and eliminate the cost of the pipeline to centralized plants and provide up to date treatment at remote area.

 Advanced technologies of domestic wastewater treatment plants:

There are many options available for the customer in the market. The selection of an efficient device depends upon the nature of your house wastewater and desired effluent quality. Efficient domestic wastewater not only removes the toxic substances from the domestic wastewater but also provides transparent effluent.

The most popular and effective treatment schemes include the conventional activated sludge treatment process, anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic treatment process, Moving bed biofilm membrane, membrane bioreactor, Ultrafiltration and Reverse osmosis.

Benefits of decentralized wastewater recycling:

The strategy to reuse domestic wastewater can combat water scarcity and reduce water demands within cities. There are many technologies present today which can make grey water enough clean that it can be used safely for drinking purposes.

water security in the cities can be ensured by finding alternative solutions to direct water consumption and introduction of technology like package plants e.g., BioTornado which can be used for the treatment purpose of domestic wastewater.

The decentralized package plants provide an alternative renewable water resource for irrigation, horticulture and nonportable use, thereby reducing the stress on the local freshwater resource that may be used for drinking purposes. Explore BioTornado features

  • Lesser transportation and cost-effective:

The treatment of domestic wastewater on-site to non-portable quality and reusing effluent locally can reduce the significant cost e.g., it cut down the cost of the piping system, collection, transportation and maintenance to central wastewater treatment facilities.

Reusing domestic wastewater is much more affordable than paying for the utility to dispose of the domestic wastewater and to buy new water for non-portable application.

  • Climate resilience and sustainability

The natural resources and economy of any country are subject to climate change and sustainable use of natural resources. The best reason to recycle and reuse the water is to make sure large availability of drinking water in the local area.

  • Customization of capacity and process:

The decentralized plants are flexible to changes according to requirements to meet with specific needs of effluent. Moreover, it is very easy to incorporate the technologies in domestic wastewater and get immediate effluent quality results as compared to centralized wastewater treatment systems.

The main challenge for using domestic wastewater as drinking water is to overcome the public perception. There is no difference between the water coming from the tap and recycled water which undergoes a lot before it becomes available for second-time use.

There is a need for companies to promote transparent communication of recycled drinking water. Additionally, the policymaker plays a crucial role in strict regulations for recycled wastewater companies and introducing the policy which streamlines to change the attitude of the general public toward recycled drinking water for the greater cause which is to ensure the water for the present and future generations

Case Study:

The domestic wastewater package plant named BioTornado has been installed at 4000+ sites. The BioTornado team claimed that their customers are satisfied with their products and have advanced technology to treat domestic wastewater, which is safe enough to use for washing or horticultural purposes.

One of their customers named  Tada  had been advised installing a B6S treatment solution which is for 4-6 people living in the home. Tadas’s extraordinary experience with B6S products made him give the following remarks.

“I recommend. 100 times. Great ones. The work was done well, quickly, and reliably. Communication, as rare now, was simple, and sincere. Most of all I liked the prices. The device works as well as possible, even after two floods lasts for more than a month. Everything is very good with them.”   


Q- Is it expensive to treat the domestic wastewater onsite?

The onsite treatment of domestic wastewater is actually very cost-effective as compared to the centralized wastewater treatment plant. There will be an upfront initial cost for setting up the decentralized domestic wastewater but in the long run, the decentralized domestic wastewater will reduce the cost of extensive piping and transportation. Additionally, it provided the opportunity to reuse the water onsite and return eliminate the cost of fresh water consumptions.  

Q-How old is technology for the treatment of domestic wastewater?

The history of treating domestic wastewater dates back to ancient times, with methods such as heating, boiling, and filtration being utilized as far back as 1500 to 2000 BCE. However, significant advancements in understanding the role of microorganisms in water treatment began in the 17th century with the invention of the microscope by Anton van Leeuwenhoek, leading to the development of more sophisticated treatment methods over time.

Q-Can we use domestic wastewater for drinking purposes?

Technically domestic wastewater can be used for drinking purposes, but it requires advanced treatment like reverse osmosis or advanced oxidation. However, converting domestic wastewater for drinking purposes requires very strict regulations and standards from the recycled companies.

In many cases, recycled domestic wastewater is used for non-portable purposes because of negative public perception.

Q-What is the health risk associated with recycled wastewater for drinking purposes? 

Recycled wastewater that undergoes proper treatment then the recycled water can safely be used for nonportable purposes, however, there may still be health concerns in the case of portable use Pathogenic protozoans may cause infection if recycled water does not undergo proper treatment.

Q-Is the toilet water included in the recycling?

Yes, toilet water also known as black water is included in the domestic wastewater treatment that undergoes recycling

Q-How we can turn domestic wastewater into potable water?

Turning domestic wastewater into potable (drinkable) water involves advanced treatment processes to remove contaminants and pathogens to meet stringent drinking water quality standards. Common treatment steps include primary and secondary treatment to remove solids and organic matter, followed by advanced treatment processes such as filtration, disinfection (e.g., UV treatment, chlorination), and possibly advanced oxidation or membrane technologies (e.g., reverse osmosis).